Economy of the European Union

From this page you can access thematically grouped Analytical Articles published in the Economic Bulletin from 1999, ordered by date of dissemination within each year.

  • 23/06/2021
    Historical development of the european structural and investment funds  File PDF: Opens in a new window (425 KB) Victor Forte-Campos and Juan Rojas

    In December 2020 the European Council approved the regulation establishing the European Union (EU) Multiannual Financial Framework for 2021-2027 and the Next Generation EU recovery facility. Both mechanisms will help provide in the coming years for financing worth €1.8 trillion to sustain the EU’s post-pandemic recovery and its long-term priorities. To set the scale of these funds and the challenge of managing them in context, this article firstly describes the European Structural and Investment Funds. It then offers a detailed analysis of the amount and composition of the resources received to date under these funds, along with their distribution by type of expenditure in the biggest EU countries, with particular emphasis on Spain. Lastly, given the regional focus of the allocation criteria, the final section of the article dissects the course, composition and distribution by type of expenditure of these funds among Spain’s different regions.

  • 22/03/2021
    The EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement (TCA)  File PDF: Opens in a new window (341 KB) Alejandro Buesa, Iván Kataryniuk, Pilar L’Hotellerie-Fallois and Susana Moreno

    On 20 December 2020 the European Union (EU) and the United Kingdom (UK) signed a Trade and Cooperation Agreement (TCA) setting the terms on which trade relations between both areas will be based. This article describes the essential points of the agreement, in both the trade and financial areas, and the governance framework that will regulate its fulfilment. It further analyses how the TCA will affect both areas’ GDP, and which adjustment measures are being taken to offset potential adverse effects.

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