Series: Working Papers. 2329.
Author: Rodolfo Campos, Samuel Pienknagura and Jacopo Timini .
We study the globalization of trade in Latin America and Asia over the past 25 years and quantify its economic impact. Employing structural gravity models, we first estimate a proxy of trade globalization that captures the ease of trading internationally with respect to trading domestically. The results indicate similar trade globalization patterns in the two regions, albeit with a high degree of heterogeneity within them. Trade globalization has been particularly strong in agriculture, mining and manufacturing, but has lagged in services. Within-region heterogeneity is associated with a set of trade policy instruments, including tariffs, non-tariff measures, WTO membership and trade agreements. Next, we quantify the economic implications of the estimated globalization trends. Simulations of a multi-sector trade model point to heterogeneous long-term impacts of globalization on GDP (some countries exhibiting substantial gains and others experiencing large losses), with no single sector playing a predominant role.