Publications

Financial analysis

From this page you can access thematically grouped Analytical Articles published in the Economic Bulletin from 1999, ordered by date of dissemination within each year.

All documents are available in PDF format PDF File. Opens in a new window

  • 05/05/2022
    The effect of workplace pension schemes on households' private savings (528 KB) Marina Gómez-García and Ernesto Villanueva

    The tax incentive enjoyed by workplace pension schemes could encourage participants to increase their total savings or, alternatively, crowd out savings that would have materialised in other financial vehicles in the absence of this incentive. This article uses data from the Spanish Survey of Household Finances to estimate the additional savings generated by this type of scheme. To this end, the financial position of workplace pension scheme participants is compared to that of a group of workers of similar ages, with similar educational attainment levels and occupations, but who do not participate in such schemes. Once the comparable group is constructed, it can be seen that, on average, each euro saved in workplace pension schemes increases private savings by around 66 cents. This is the ratio of the difference in average net wealth between participants and their comparable group (€13,600) to the average amount accumulated in pension schemes (€20,600). Once adjusted for the fact that contributions are tax-exempt, the additional savings generated amount to around 31 cents for every euro contributed, calculated as the ratio of the €6,500 difference in tax-relief-adjusted wealth between the two groups to the average amount accumulated in workplace pension schemes.

  • 27/04/2022
    The effect of TLTRO III on Spanish credit institutions´ balance sheets (473 KB) M.ª Carmen Castillo Lozoya, Enrique Esteban García-Escudero and M.ª Luisa Pérez Ortiz

    With the onset of the COVID-19 crisis, the ECB’s Governing Council modified the conditions of the TLTRO III, aiming to facilitate the flow of bank credit to the real economy. The new conditions encouraged an unprecedented level of take-up of the Eurosystem’s refinancing operations by credit institutions. In the case of Spain, all participating banks met the eligible net lending target (that is, loans to non-financial corporations and households, except loans to households for house purchases) established for the period March 2020 to March 2021. To ascertain the impact on banks’ balance sheets of this huge liquidity injection via TLTRO III, this article identifies four strategies – lending, holding reserves at the Banco de España, purchase of government debt and substitution for market funding – that banks could implement after applying for TLTRO III funding. The conclusion drawn is that there is a significant relationship between participation in TLTRO III and eligible lending and reserve holding strategies.

  • 12/04/2022
    April 2022 Bank Lending Survey in Spain (560 KB) Álvaro Menéndez Pujadas and Maristela Mulino

    According to the Bank Lending Survey, during 2022 Q1 credit standards in business lending tightened both in Spain and in the euro area as a whole, against a backdrop of greater concern for the risks associated with the impact of the energy crisis and, more recently, the war in Ukraine. There were no significant changes in credit standards in Spain in the two household lending segments. Loan applications continued to increase moderately in both areas, across almost all segments. For Q2, supply is expected to contract, more intensely in business lending, both in Spain and in the euro area, in a setting of greater uncertainty associated with the effects of the war in Ukraine. Lastly, as regards the non-standard monetary policy measures of the European Central Bank (ECB), banks expect the favourable effects on their financial position and lending policy to diminish over the coming months, reversing their sign in some cases, against a background of gradual monetary policy normalisation.

  • 25/03/2022
    Results of non-financial corporations to 2021 Q4. Preliminary year-end data (686 KB) Álvaro Menéndez and Maristela Mulino.

    Data from the Central Balance Sheet Data Office Quarterly Survey (CBQ) show that corporate earnings and activity increased significantly in 2021. However, the recovery was dampened in Q4 at the firms most exposed to rising energy costs. Against this background, average profitability levels rose significantly compared with 2020, albeit remaining below pre-pandemic values. The overall debt of the sample firms grew in 2021, leading to a slight increase in the average debt-to-assets ratio. Conversely, the average ratio of debt to ordinary earnings, which proxies repayment capacity, fell, helped by the recovery in corporate earnings. The average interest coverage ratio also decreased. This was due to both the lower cost of outstanding debt and higher ordinary earnings. Following the sharp rise in the previous year, liquidity ratios declined at most firms and sectors, against a less uncertain backdrop. The article includes a box analysing recent developments in the degree of financial vulnerability of CBQ firms. It shows that, after the severe downturn in 2020, there was a clear improvement in 2021. However, they remained more financially vulnerable than in 2019.

  • 15/03/2022
    Recent developments in lending to non-financial corporations: supply and demand factors (448 KB) Roi Barreira, Sergio Mayordomo, Irene Roibás and Manuel Ruiz-García

    Since summer 2020, resident banks’ lending to non-financial corporations has been sluggish. In the wake of the impact of the health crisis, this has been against a backdrop of weak demand, a relatively steady supply of bank lending and an increase in financing obtained through issuance of debt securities. An analysis drawing on the granular information both of firms and banks confirms that this loss of momentum in bank lending is explained essentially by demand factors. In particular, there are signs that some firms have been using part of the liquidity buffers they built up in 2020, and that large corporations have replaced part of their bank lending with issuance of debt securities. The analysis also suggests that supply factors linked to the amount of capital available to banks are not an important factor in explaining the weakness of lending to non-financial corporations during the period considered.

  • 01/02/2022
    January 2022 Bank Lending Survey in Spain (724 KB) Álvaro Menéndez Pujadas and Maristela Mulino

    According to the Bank Lending Survey, during 2021 Q4 credit standards tightened slightly in Spain, while remaining virtually unchanged in most segments in the euro area. The terms and conditions applied to new loans did not change significantly in either of the two areas, the sole exception being those applied in Spain to the loans to households for house purchase segment, which eased slightly. Loan applications increased moderately in both Spain and the euro area, across almost all segments, in keeping with the recovery in economic activity.

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