Banknotes and coins

European Central Bank studies

In 2016, the European Central Bank (ECB) began to analyse the use of cash and other payment instruments in the euro area.

The aim is to shed light on the behaviour of payments and, in particular, to better understand the nature of payments based on a households payments diary. Various studies carried out by the ECB are available below.

Year 2021

Year 2019

Year 2016

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